Анализ метафор

Metaphors in the articles for women

Currently, women’s magazines are one of the most popular and most frequently purchased press genres, so they play a significant role in influencing women. For our study we have chosen such popular women’s journals as Cosmopolitan, Marie Claire, К-Cosmetics, Women’s Health etc. These magazines contain information about fashion, sport, health and lifestyle published monthly. The specified magazines have influenced American society for over a hundred years. The magazine has evolved to reflect modern women. The magazines passed through many modifications in the process of their development and have formed a market for women’s magazines.

The association of women and food is as old as the hills. Biological functions such as breastfeeding, traditional views confining women to the domestic sphere and folk beliefs of the type The way to a man’s heart is through his stomach or A woman’s place is barefoot, pregnant, and in the kitchen seem to support this view. Hence, it is not surprising to find in English female magazines a great many linguistic expressions establishing such a connection. Honey, tart, sweetie or cookie are but a few examples commonly found in these sort of publications. Common desserts employed in these magazines include pie, tart and pudding. Along with the connotations of sweetness, all these foodstuffs share certain characteristics, namely, they belong to the field of confectionery, are usually eaten as desserts and tend to be decorated in some way (e.g. with fruits, jelly, creams). In fact, the visual component of this type of cakes soon brings home to us images of desserts just adorned to be exposed in a window shop to make our mouths water. This common experience of walking by a cake shop and being drawn by the visual beauty of those neatly arranged cakes is implicitly transmitted in their metaphoric usage in these publications and, as the following examples show, both tart and pie are applied to attractive women: She is a cutie pie(Rodrigues, 2007).

One of the most common sets of linguistic metaphors in English applies the characteristics of animals to women and their activities. The straightforward transfer of a name from an animal to a woman includes kitten (a young girl), cow (a mean nasty or fat woman) or vixen (an ill-tempered woman). All these animal images roughly correspond to the three main categories with which women are identified in teenage and women’s magazines, namely, pets, farm and wild animals: Be bitchy. Some secret bitching with mates about you-know-who can help! (CosmoGirl, September 2003, p. 90); Men Accuse Women of Not Being Witty – Just Bitchy (Rodrigues, 2007).

The portrayal of women as babies is another semantic device frequently employed by teenage and women’s magazines in the representation of females. Experiences with babies may certainly prompt favourable associations in the encoding of the metaphor. Generally, babies awaken in us feelings of tenderness and protection and, therefore, the metaphor might be established on the grounds of affection. However, when examining the actual usage in female publications, certain sexual nuances seem to be conveyed on the basis of such a metaphorical identification: Shagadelic, Baby! Score in these psychedelic underthings (Rodrigues, 2007).

Analysing the metaphors in women’s magazines we found the following types of metaphors as

  1. Dead metaphors (15%). Let’s consider the following examples:
  2. Red can be a tough shade to wear, so making the right choice between burgundy tones, orange bright and classic pillar box reds is pretty important. Whether you’re going bare-faced with a pop of colour or finishing a fully made-up look, red lipsticks are one image-transforming tool that every girl should have in her back pocket (К-Cosmetics). The back pocket means that the wallet is usually kept and implies that the manipulative process was achieved through buying you off, that is using their money to put you under an obligation. The word back means “near the rear; not current; far from the main area; produced in the back of the mouth” (Your Dictionaries).
  3. It’s a cruel truth, but the body doesn’t always synch with the mind and, despite what I knew, my ex had me hooked (Marie Claire UK, February 2015). In this example, we can find metaphor cruel truth. Cruelty is a category peculiar to human nature. Cruelty means “behaviour or actions that deliberately cause pain to people or animals; the unfairness of something that happens” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). The definition of cruelty refers to unkind or mean acts, or indifference to someone’s feelings or emotions. It is “the quality or condition of being cruel; inhumanity; hardheartedness; wilful infliction of physical pain or suffering upon a person or animal, or of mental distress upon a person” (Your Dictionaries). The notion truth belongs to abstract categories having the following meaning: “the true facts about something, rather than what is untrue, imagined, or guessed; the state or quality of being true; an important factor or idea that is accepted as being true” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Truth, in metaphysics and the philosophy of language, is the property of sentences, assertions, beliefs, thoughts, or propositions that are said, in ordinary discourse, to agree with the facts or to state what the case is. Truth is the aim of belief; falsity is a fault. People need the truth about the world in order to thrive. Truth is important. Believing what is not true is apt to spoil a person’s plans and may even cost him his life. Telling what is not true may result in legal and social penalties. Conversely, a dedicated pursuit of truth characterizes the good scientist, the good historian, and the good detective (Encyclopaedia Britannica). The expression cruel truth is metaphorical because the truth can’t have the feature of cruelty or kindness and so one, as it is the human feature. However, we understand the cruel truth as truth that raises the feeling we are behaved faulty or unfairly.
  4. No, you can’t mope around like Grumpy Cat all the time, but you can harness your ’tude to create better health habits, stronger relationships, and a more kick-ass work life (Women’s Health, January-February 2015). In this sentence we observe using metaphor health habits. The word habit belongs to the area of human behaviour.In psychology it means any regularly repeated behaviour that requires little or no thought and is learned rather than innate. Healthy from health meaning “the general condition of your body and how healthy you are; the work of providing medical services to keep people healthy; when you have no illness or disease” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Thus the metaphor means such habits of having healthy way of life.
  5. But now, the debilitating headaches lasted a week at a time – and were accompanied by panic attacks that caused chest tightness, a racing pulse, back and neck pain, and a general mental fog (Women’s Health, August 2014). The metaphor panic attack concerns the medical area. Firstly the word attack as considered in law sense as “an act of violence that is intended to hurt a person or damage a place; the act of using weapons against an enemy in a war; a strong and direct criticism of someone or something; a sudden short period of suffering from an illness, especially an illness that you have often; a short period of time when you suddenly feel extremely frightened or worried and cannot think normally or deal with the situation; actions that are intended to get rid of or stop something such as a system, a set of laws etc.” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Semantically panic means “a sudden strong feeling of fear or nervousness that makes you unable to think clearly or behave sensibly; a situation in which people are suddenly made very anxious, and make quick decisions without thinking carefully; a situation in which you have a lot to do and not much time to do it in; a situation in which everyone is busy and anxious because something needs to be done urgently” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Taking into account the features of panic as unexpected effect that hurt the person and its nervous system, the metaphor panic attack means situation, when a person feels the pressure of stressful conditions. Physical symptoms may include shortness of breath, palpitations or accelerated heart rate, chest pain or discomfort, choking, dizziness or faintness, trembling or shaking, sweating, nausea, abdominal distress, numbness or tingling, and hot flashes or chills. Psychological symptoms may consist of a smothering sensation, a feeling of unreality, a fear of dying, and a fear of “going crazy” or losing control. 

The other metaphor is mental fog. Fog means the cloud of small water droplets that is near ground level and sufficiently dense to reduce horizontal visibility to less than 1,000 metres (3,281 feet). The word fog also may refer to clouds of smoke particles, ice particles, or mixtures of these components. Under similar conditions, but with visibility greater than 1,000 metres, the phenomenon is termed a mist orhaze, depending on whether the obscurity is caused by water drops or solid particles (Encyclopaedia Britannica). The word mental means “relating to the health or state of someone’s mind; relating to the mind and thinking, or happening only in the mind” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Thus, the metaphor is understood as the state of mind when a person is uncertain, or finds himself in difficult efforts to understand something.Extended Metaphors (9%). Let’s look on the following examples:

Every day is game day when sporty meets sexy in a jersey mini dress (Cosmopolitan USA, February 2015). In this example the metaphor every day is game day is used. Game is “something you play for fun, sport or as a competitive activity; any form of play or way of playing; amusement; recreation; sport; frolic; play; any specific contest, engagement, amusement, computer simulation, or sport involving physical or mental competition under specific rules, as football, chess, or war games; a single contest in such a competition; a set of equipment for a competitive amusement; a way or quality of playing in competition” (Your Dictionaries). The metaphor means that every day is the game of competition similarly to the sport event.

Conceptual Metaphors (37%). See the examples below:

Mascaras for Green Eyes – if you are of lovely green eyes, purple and plum mascaras will be good for you. This colours will greatly fatter your eyes if they are paired with grey eyeshadow, especially if you do smokey eyes (Coloured eyes). The metaphor smokey eyes mean dark shadow on the lid that may or may not be blended up into the crease. By dark, we are referring to a shadow that is darker than the natural colour of your eyelid or a colour that appears to recede when applied to your lid.  The dark shadow should also be smudged beneath the lower lash line. If you are extending the lid colour into the crease, a smooth transitional fade between the dark lid colour and the brow highlight is essential to pulling off the perfect traditional smokey eye (The Smokey Eye: What is it,  Exactly?). This metaphor is built on similarity of look, i.e. smoky is like smoke in colour or appearance.

Red lipstick can add a touch of Hollywood glamour or vamp up your off-duty look in a second. So if you’re looking for the perfect one, look no further. Here’s our pick of the 10 best… The metaphor Hollywood glamour is built on the popularity of Hollywood luxury as a famous cinema industry. As it is known from “Encyclopaedia Britannica” Hollywood is district within the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S., whose name is synonymous with the American film industry. Lying northwest of downtown Los Angeles, it is bounded by Hyperion Avenue and Riverside Drive (east), Beverly Boulevard (south), the foothills of the Santa Monica Mountains (north), and Beverly Hills (west). Since the early 1900s, when moviemaking pioneers found in southern California an ideal blend of mild climate, much sunshine, varied terrain, and a large labour market, the image of Hollywood as the fabricator of tinselled cinematic dreams has been etched worldwide” (Encyclopaedia Britannica). The word glamour means «the attractive and exciting quality of being connected with wealth and success; a style of attractiveness that suggests wealth» (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). In the collection of “Your Dictionaries” glamour is determined as “the elegant, exciting or attractive quality that makes someone or something seem special or desirable”; “seemingly mysterious and elusive fascination or allure; bewitching charm; elegance, luxury, high fashion, etc. or their aura around a person, situation, etc.”; “exciting or mysterious attractiveness usually associated with striking physical beauty, luxury, or celebrity” (Your Dictionaries). Thus the metaphor Hollywood glamourmeans the luxury, richness and physical perfection.

Golden Rose Lipstick. A special lipstick line which gives high and intense colours, smoothly glides along your lips and blends easily with the creamy texture, nourishes, hydrates and maintains a perfect care for your lips, gives a long wearing glamorous beauty thanks to the Vitamin E and Shea Butter in its formula. Presented in 3 different textures; metallic, creamy and shimmering in a line (Golden Rose Lipstick). The metaphor Golden Rose Lipstick is built on the similarity of golden colour – “of, relating to, made of, or containing gold; having the colour of gold or a yellow colour suggestive of gold; lustrous; radiant; suggestive of gold, as in richness or splendour; of the greatest value or importance; precious” (Your Dictionaries); rose means “the definition of a rose is a flower in the genus Rosa or something that looks like such a flower, or a colour that is a dark pink shade; any of a genus (Rosa) of shrubs of the rose family, characterized by prickly stems, pinnate leaves, and fragrant flowers with five petals that are usually white, yellow, or, often specif., red or pink; the flower of any of these plants; any of several similar or related plants; pinkish red or purplish red; rosette; a round, perforated nozzle for a hose, sprinkling can, etc.; of or having to do with a rose or roses; rose-colored; rose-scented; designating a large and widely distributed family of wild and cultivated dicotyledonous shrubs and trees, including cinquefoils, meadowsweets, hawthorns, strawberries, apples, peaches, and almond” (Your Dictionaries). The other metaphor is a long wearing glamorous beauty is built on the similarity of appearance. Glamorous beauty means the beauty of luxury, perfection etc. The metaphorical long wearing has the meaning related to clothes. In this example, long wearing beauty means beauty that has long-lasting effect, and a certain mask that could be put on.

Yes, you can show what lies beneath, but make sure it’s a lacy one-piece (though bear in mind this is one of those trends for smaller busts). You won’t fash – the cleverly positioned lace makes sure of that. Add a velvet tux for an easy cocktail option (Marie Claire UK, February 2015). The metaphor cocktail option derives from the semantic meaning of the word cocktail that relates to food – “a mixed alcoholic beverage; a mixture of other substances” (Your Dictionaries); “an alcoholic drink made from a mixture of different drinks; small pieces of fish, prawns or lobster served cold with a sauce and eaten as the first part of a meal; a mixture of small pieces of fruit; a mixture of several things which is dangerous, unpleasant, confusing, or exciting” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Thus, the metaphor means the choice of mixture of different colours.

Designers went rummaging in the attic for historical silhouettes and a kaleidoscope of rich fabrics, from 18th-century frock coats at Dior to Prada’s spliced patchworks of brocade with their raw, trailing hems and crystal trims. Dolce & Gabbana’s gem-encrusted matador collection was precious personified (Marie Claire UK, February 2015). In this sentence we can see using a metaphor a kaleidoscope of rich fabrics. The basis of this metaphor is formed by the word kaleidoscope. In the “Encyclopaedia Britannica” kaleidoscope means “optical device consisting of mirrors that reflect images of bits of coloured glass in a symmetrical geometric design through a viewer. The design may be changed endlessly by rotating the section containing the loose fragments. The name is derived from the Greek words kalos(beautiful), eïdos (form), andskopeïn(to view). The kaleidoscope was invented by Sir David Brewster about 1816 and patented in 1817. Sold usually as a toy, the kaleidoscope also has value for the pattern designer. The kaleidoscope illustrates the image-forming properties of combined, inclined mirrors. If an object is placed between two mirrors inclined at right angles, an image is formed in each mirror. Each of these mirror images is in turn reflected in the other mirror, forming the appearance of four symmetrically placed objects. If the mirrors are inclined at 60°, a hexagonally symmetrical pattern results from one object producing six regularly placed images” (Encyclopaedia Britannica). Therefore, the metaphor a kaleidoscope of rich fabrics means diversity of fabrics, their colour and forms.

I had been going through the motions of conviviality, like an actress simply mimicking my character as if I were the star of my own show (Marie Claire UK, February 2015). In this example, the metaphor the star of my own show is used. First of all the word star belongs to the astronomy area, where it means any massive self-luminous celestial body of gas that shines by radiation derived from its internal energy sources. Of the tens of billions of trillions of stars composing the observable universe, only a very small percentage is visible to the naked eye” (Encyclopaedia Britannica). Today the word star is used to denote “a person who excels or performs brilliantly in a given activity, especially a sport; a prominent actor or actress, especially one playing a leading role and having special billing in a given production; an exceptionally talented or famous person, often in a specific field; a celebrity” (Your Dictionaries). Thus the meaning of metaphor the star of my own show is a person that attracts attention to himself or becomes a centre of any events.

Most of all I was losing touch with myself, and as I climbed the steps of the home we’d shared for nearly three years, I inhaled the familiar scent of my old life and walked back into his arms with a heavy heart (Marie Claire UK, February 2015). Here we found the metaphor inhaled the familiar scent of my old life. The word inhale belongs to the area of medicine: “to breathe in air, smoke, or gas” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English); “to draw (air, vapour, etc.) into the lungs; breathe in” (Your Dictionaries). The expression scent of my old life means the feeling that is caused by the memories about past times in the life of a person. In reality it is impossible to inhale the past, because such notion as the past, old life and etc. belong to abstract nouns which have no material form similarly to gas or smoke. Of course, we can conclude that it is used metaphorically. When the author speaks that he inhaled the familiar scent of my old life it means that he felt smelt that reminded him some things from his past life.

They’re the fibers that help you experience sensations. The messaging system that transfers signals all around your body. But you have other nerves. Ones you won’t see illustrated in anatomy books. These nerves keep you calm in the face of chaos. Focused when life throws you a curveball. And courageous in tough situations (Women’s Health, August 2014). In this example we can see using metaphor in the face of chaos. Chaos (Greek: “Abyss”) in early Greek cosmology, either the primeval emptiness of the universe before things came into being or the abyss of Tartarus, the underworld. Both concepts occur in the Theogony of Hesiod. First there was Chaos in Hesiod’s system, then Gaea and Eros (Earth and Desire). Chaos, however, did not generate Gaea; the offspring of Chaos were Erebus (Darkness) and Nyx. Nyx begat Aether, the bright upper air, and Day. Nyx later begat the dark and dreadful aspects of the universe (e.g., Dreams, Death, War, and Famine). This concept tied in with the other early notion that saw in Chaos the darkness of the underworld. In the later cosmologies Chaos generally designated the original state of things, however conceived. The modern meaning of the word is derived from Ovid, who saw Chaos as the original disordered and formless mass, from which the maker of the Cosmos produced the ordered universe (Encyclopaedia Britannica).  The metaphor in the face of chaos means being in the disordered state or find oneself in the time of disorder.

Winter, then, may be a time of cold and dark; a time that traditionally, we would have dreaded, but it is also in its current incarnation a time for much needed stillness and reflection (Psychologies, January 2015). Here we found the metaphor incarnation a time. Generally the word incarnation relates to religion. The definition of an incarnation is a person who stands for some abstract idea, or a person who embodies a God or deity in the flesh  (Your Dictionaries). Thus incarnation is a human category – “endowment with a human body; appearance in human form; any person or animal serving as the embodiment of a god or spirit; any person or thing serving as the type or embodiment of a quality or concept” (Your Dictionaries). So incarnation of time means embodiment of certain period, era, epoch or etc.

Evaluative metaphor (39%). Let’s look at the examples below:

If you’re on the hunt for a new watch, meet Dolce & Gabbana’s “sofa”. Cased in rose gold and available in five delicious colours, it’s our latest timepiece crush (Marie Claire UK, February 2015). The metaphor delicious coloursis built of similarity of meaning with taste of food. The word delicious relates to the area of culinary and means “very pleasant to taste or smell; extremely pleasant or enjoyable” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English); “the definition of delicious is something that tastes or smells really good or is enjoyable; highly pleasing or agreeable to the senses, especially of taste or smell; very pleasant; delightful” (Your Dictionaries). The word colour “red, blue, yellow, green, brown, purple etc.; the appearance of something as a result of the way it reflects (= throws back) light, especially when its appearance is very bright or is made up of a lot of different colours” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English); “the spectral composition of visible light; a particular set of visible spectral compositions, perceived or named as a class” (Your Dictionaries). Thus the metaphor delicious colours means the colours, which raise the pleasant, enjoyable emotions.

I craved our physical connection and would look forward to our liaisons like a drug that would numb the pain (Marie Claire UK, February 2015). The metaphor bears simile form. The word crave means “to have an extremely strong desire for something” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English); “to ask for earnestly; beg; to long for eagerly; desire strongly; to be in great need of; to desire strongly, so as to satisfy an appetite; to long or yearn for; to ask for earnestly” (Your Dictionaries). The definitions of the verb testify that a person feels strong tension because of his desire. This feeling is compared with the effect of a drug on the human body: I craved our physical connection and would look forward to our liaisons like a drug that would numb the pain. The word drug has double meaning. At first it is used in meaning of substance that can cause feeling of relief or euphoria: “an illegal substance such as marijuana or cocaine, which some people take in order to feel happy, relaxed, or excited; a substance such as tobacco, coffee, or alcohol, that makes you want more and more of it” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Secondly, the drug is medicines that can relief physical pain: “any substance used as a medicine or as an ingredient in a medicine which kills or inactivates germs, or affects any body function or organ; any substance used in chemistry, dyeing, etc.; a narcotic, hallucinogen, etc., esp. one that is habit-forming” (Your Dictionaries). Therefore, physical connection is accepted by the speaker as a drug that can relieve his emotional tension or pain.

I’m as ashamed now as I was then, but nothing would deter me from my mission – not even the imminent crash that followed every rendezvous with this man, and with it, the dark gloom of self-loathing (Marie Claire UK, February 2015). In this sentence the metaphor dark gloom of self-loathing is represented. The adjective dark denotes colour or its absence: “if it is dark, there is little or no light; quite close to black in colour; someone who is dark has hair, eyes, or skin that is brown or black in colour; if you have dark feelings or thoughts, you are very sad or worried” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). The word gloom belongs to abstract noun having the meaning of “darkness or a dark and gloomy place, or it is defined as a state of being depressed and in a bad mood; darkness; dimness; obscurity; a dark or dim place; deep sadness or hopelessness;  an atmosphere of melancholy or depression; a state of melancholy or depression; despondency” (Your Dictionaries). Therefore, the metaphor expresses the meaning of intensified sadness or hopeless times for a person.

Aromatic figs, citrus fruits, caviar, fig tree, musk and ambergris – a brave fragrance (К-Cosmetics). Here we can see the metaphor brave fragrance. The word fragrance means “a pleasant smell; a liquid that you put on your body to make it smell pleasant” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). The characteristic of braveness is peculiar to people. Brave is interpreted as “dealing with danger, pain, or difficult situations with courage and confidence; very good; a situation or a way of doing something that is new and exciting and meant to improve people’s lives” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Therefore, we can understand the metaphor brave fragrance reflects the meaning of aroma that is associated with courage, resistance to social norms, extraordinary nature.

Sophisticated combination of tempting aroma of pear, jasmine, patchouli, styrax japonica and hot spices: ginger and saffron (К-Cosmetics). The expression tempting aroma is metaphorical. Temptation generally means “a strong desire to have or do something even though you know you should not; something that makes you want to have or do something, even though you know you should not” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). The word aroma belongs to abstract nouns, which are not related to feeling of strong desire. Thus, in this sentence the expression is used metaphorically in the meaning of aroma that raises some desires or association in the person. The similar metaphor is strong aroma in the following sentence:  Strong aroma of cedar wood, coriander, ambergris and resin, enhanced with energetic notes of lemon and mandarin (К-Cosmetics).

Explosion of citrus energy surrounded by a subtle aroma of roses, osmanthus, peony, sandalwood and patchouli (К-Cosmetics). In this example the metaphor explosion of citrus energy is used. The word explosion has the meaning of “a loud sound and the energy produced by something such as a bomb bursting into small pieces; a process in which something such as a bomb is deliberately made to explode; a sudden or quick increase in the number or amount of something; a sudden expression of emotion, especially anger” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English).

Citrus means “a type of tree that produces citrus fruits; a fruit with thick skin, such as an orange or lemon” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English).  Citrus is genus of plants belonging to the rue family (Rutaceae), and yielding pulpy fruits covered with fairly thick skins. Plants in this group include the lemon (C. limon), lime (C. aurantifolia), sweet orange (C. sinensis), sour orange (C. aurantiumsee orange), tangerine (C. reticulata), grapefruit (C. paradisi), citron (C. medica), and shaddock (C. maxima, or C. grandis; pomelo) (Encyclopaedia Britannica).

The word energy derives from physics and means as the capacity for doing work. It may exist in potential, kinetic, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or other various forms. There are, moreover, heat and work – i.e., energy in the process of transfer from one body to another. After it has been transferred, energy is always designated according to its nature. Hence, heat transferred may become thermal energy, while work done may manifest itself in the form of mechanical energy (Encyclopaedia Britannica). The semantic meaning of the word energy renders the meaning of “the physical and mental strength that makes you able to do things; power that is used to provide heat, operate machines etc.; a special power that some people believe exists in their bodies and in some buildings; in physics, the ability that something has to work or move” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English).

The metaphor explosion of citrus energy is associated with motion. For example, any given body has kinetic energy if it is in motion. A tensioned device such as a bow or spring, though at rest, has the potential for creating motion; it contains potential energy because of its configuration. Similarly, nuclear energy is potential energy because it results from the configuration of subatomic particles in the nucleus of an atom. Thus, the citrus energy is energy that is given from eating citrus.

Feel the chemistry of love. Pheromones are one of the most popular aphrodisiacs. When combined with beautiful perfumes they help to stimulate the senses and feel exceptionally attractive (К-Cosmetics). The metaphor in this sentence is the chemistry of love. The word love belongs to abstract nous and has the meaning of “a strong feeling of caring about someone, especially a member of your family or a close friend; a strong feeling of liking someone a lot combined with sexual attraction” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English).

Chemistry is understood as the science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of substances (defined as elements and compounds), the transformations they undergo, and the energy that is released or absorbed during these processes. Every substance, whether naturally occurring or artificially produced, consists of one or more of the hundred-odd species of atoms that have been identified as elements. Although these atoms, in turn, are composed of more elementary particles, they are the basic building blocks of chemical substances; there is no quantity of oxygen, mercury, or gold, for example, smaller than an atom of that substance. Chemistry, therefore, is concerned not with the subatomic domain but with the properties of atoms and the laws governing their combinations and how the knowledge of these properties can be used to achieve specific purposes (Encyclopaedia Britannica).

When we speak about the chemistry of love, we mean some process the causes love feeling. It is unexplained generally, but it occurs as transformation of a reality around.

Soothing scrub for smooth, silky skin on feet (Catalogue Fragrance, Spring 2013). The metaphor silky skin is built on the similarity of tactile feelings of skin and cloth.  The word silky is understood as “made of silk; silken; resembling silk; smooth or lustrous; covered with or characterized by fine soft hairs or feathers; pleasantly agreeable, as to the ear; suave or ingratiating”. Therefore, when we speak about silky skin, we mean its smoothness.

Complicated emotions may drive people to weight-loss surgery, but it pays to be positive (Women’s Health, January-February 2015). The metaphor emotions may drive represents the personification of emotion as human being that can control or stimulate people. In psychology emotion is understood as a complex experience of consciousness, bodily sensation, and behaviour that reflects the personal significance of a thing, an event, or a state of affairs” (Encyclopaedia Britannica). In this sentence emotion acquires the treats of a living person.

As a creamy lipstick, this coral-redcolour is both sexy andladylike,” says Surratt.While it flatters allskin tones, the hue canlend a yellow tingeto less-than-gleamingteeth (Women’s Health, January-February 2015). The word creamy means “thick and smooth like cream; containing cream” from cream – “a thick yellow-white liquid that rises to the top of milk; a pale yellow-white colour; used in the names of foods containing cream or something similar to it; a thick smooth substance that you put on yourskin to make it feel soft, treat a medical condition etc.” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). In this sentence metaphor means lipstick that reminds cream by its properties, i.e. smooth, and soft to lips.

This condition makes the blood vessels in your face dilate, causing a flushed look (Women’s Health, January-February 2015). Flushed means of being of healthy reddish colour; a fresh rosy complexion. The look can’t have any colour, thus we can suggest that is going about making up the eyes in some rosy colour.

Emily Schromm nabbed our second-annual title with her sick moves and infectious energy (Women’s Health, January-February 2015). Here the metaphor infectious energy is used. The word infectious derives from the area of medicine and concerns the infectious disease. There it is the caused by a microorganism that impairs a person’s health. An infection, by contrast, is the invasion of and replication in the body by any of various microbial agents – including bacteria,viruses, fungi, protozoans, and worms – as well as the reaction of tissues to their presence or to the toxins that they produce (Encyclopaedia Britannica). In this sentence the expression infectious energy means spreading of energy that affects the others. The definition of infectious is something that is likely to spread in a rapid manner, such as a contagious disease that spreads easily from person to person.

Many people can identify with the toxic feeling you get when you’ve consumed too much of something: alcohol, junk food, tobacco (Psychologies, January 2015). The metaphor in this sentence is toxic feeling. The word toxic means “containing poison, or caused by poisonous substances” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). The poison is “a substance that can cause death or serious illness if you eat it, drink it etc.; something such as an emotion or idea that makes you behave badly or become very unhappy” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). Therefore, the metaphor toxic feeling means feeling or the emotion state of a person that reminds the illness or dependence.‘When I first tried mindfulness, I’d been struggling with depression and anxiety for years. Desperate for peace of mind, I’d given virtually every treatment a go, but none shifted my symptoms – a racing mind full of negative thoughts, and lots of emotional pain (Psychologies, January 2015). The metaphor a racing mind is built on the similarity of action. Race is understood as “a competition in which people or animals compete to run, drive etc fastest and finish first; one of the main groups that humans can be divided into according to the colour of their skin and other physical features” (Longman dictionary of Contemporary English). A racing mind means quick change of thoughts or quick reaction of a person.

Female magazines help women make sense of their collective experiences by providing models for women to follow. In fact, the media dictate who women are, for instead of portraying real women, the media construct socially accepted notions of what women should be like. In other words, these magazines do not mirror women’s concerns, interests or even women themselves, but rather, they become fun-house mirrors distorting reality.

Thus, the results of our study can be represented in the following diagram (Fig. 1):