1. Adopt ONE word from the table depending on your group number and the order of your last name in your group register. For instance, Головко О., Данилюк А., Девлячий В. from group 06-13 adopt the word ear, as their last names are assigned numbers 1 through 3 respectively on the group list. However, each student completes the tasks and hands in the written work independently!
2. Analyze your word in writing with regard to its a) origins, b) morphemic structure, c) word-formation, d) semantic structure, e) paradigmatic relations, f) syntagmatic relations, g) phraseological activity, h) stylistic differentiation and regional variation as well as i) lexicographical representation
According to origin the word joy is borrowed from Old French.
c. 1200, «feeling of pleasure and delight;» c. 1300, «source of pleasure or happiness,» from Old French joie «pleasure, delight, erotic pleasure, bliss, joyfulness» (11c.), from Latin gaudia «expressions of pleasure; sensual delight,» plural of gaudium «joy, inward joy, gladness, delight; source of pleasure or delight,» from gaudere «rejoice,» from PIE root *gau- «to rejoice» (cognates: Greek gaio «I rejoice,» Middle Irish guaire «noble»).
As a term of endearment from 1580s. Joy-riding is American English, 1908; joy-ride (n.) is from 1909.
According to the structure the word joy is a simple word represented by root-morpheme. The word joy is formed without using any affixes.
The word joy serves the basis for such derivatives as:
verb enjoy – “to get pleasure from something”. The verb is formed by adding prefix en-.
adjective enjoyable – “giving or capable of giving joy or pleasure”. The adjective is formed by adding suffix – able.
participle enjoyed – “that received pleasure or satisfaction from something”. The participle is formed by adding prefix en- and ending –ed.
The word joy is monosemous.
Semantically the word joy renders the meaning “a feeling of great pleasure and happiness”. The main meanings of the word joy are as follows: “1. a deep feeling or condition of happiness or contentment; 2. something causing such a feeling; a source of happiness; 3. an outward show of pleasure or delight; rejoicing”. The secondary or connotative meaning is “success; satisfaction”: I went to the bank for a loan, but got no joy.
The word joy and its derivatives in used in the different expressions:
Enjoy life like a young porpoise — George Santayana
Gorged with joy like a pigeon too fat to fly — Marge Piercy
Great joys, like griefs, are silent —Shackerley Marmion
Joy is like the ague [malaria]; one good day between two bad ones — Danish proverb
Joy, simple as the wildflowers — George Garrett
Joys … like angel visits, short and bright — John Norris
The paradigmatic relationships of the word joy are represented by synonyms and antonyms. The synonyms of the word joy are as follows: satisfaction, comfort, delight, cheer, pride, amusement, merriment, happiness. The antonyms of the word joy include such ones as: sadness, melancholy, sorrow, dislike, mourning, vocation, woe, unhappiness, depression.
Syntagmatically the word joy is combined with adjectives to show the extent of feeling, for example:
In that moment of obvious joy, Alondra barely had an accent.
Also it is used in noun word-combinations, for example:
Carmen gazed down at Matthew, overwhelmed with the joy of motherhood.
However, the bones, their identity, Fitzgerald’s present whereabouts, and all other unrelated matters paled in the joy of Martha’s return.
The word joy is used with the verbs too, for example:
Smiling Maria continued to be a joy at Bird Song and was learning English far quicker than the Deans would ever learn her native tongue.
She expected joy at the offer but felt wary instead.
|JOY a feeling of great pleasure or happiness|
|verb to enjoy — “to get pleasure from something”|
|adjective enjoyable – “be pleased or satisfied”|
|With his silver pride and joy secured to the bike rack, a spare change of clothes and rain gear in his pannier and some fruit and crackers for a snack, he rolled away from town|
|There is no greater joy for an artist than to know their work is in the hands of someone who truly understands it.|
|Related terms: caper, chirp, clap hands, dance, ecstasy, exhilaration, exult, feel happy, felicity, fun, gladness, gleefulness, joyance, laughter, mirth, paradise, rapture, revel, sing, skip for joy, smile, take great satisfaction|
The semantic field of the word joy can be represented in the following table:
|Happiness||The cluster “happiness” includes such concepts as “bliss”, “felicity”, “beatitude”, etc. Language units which represent the concepts of this cluster express a state of complete and great satisfaction. This emotional state may be felt without any demonstration of feelings (except sparkling eyes and a faint smile on smb’s face.) A state of complete and great satisfaction may be expressed by such units as:a fool’s paradise, to be over the moon, to be flying high, to be in the seventh heaven, to be on cloud nine, to be (sitting) on top of the world, to live in Eden, etc.;|
|Gaiety||The cluster “gaiety” includes such concepts as “hilarity”, “festivity”, “cheer”, “exhilaration”, “glee”, “mirth”, “merriment”, “revelry”, etc. Language units, representing concepts of this cluster, express devil-may-care and joyful mood, the result of which is fun, entertainment and laughter. Concepts of this cluster are expressed by the following units: to have a rare time, to be in fine feather, as merry as a cricket, big time, to jump for joy, to leap for joy.|
|Rejoicing||Language units, representing concepts of the cluster “rejoicing” (“exultation”, “jubilance”, “jubilation”, etc.), express an ecstatic emotional state. Associative links of the concept “joy” with the concepts of this cluster show that high spirits is interpreted as a result of success or victory over something / someone. Rejoicing may be expressed by the following units: to walk/dance on air, to crow (over), to rejoice/warm the cockles of one’s heart, etc.|
|Ecstasy||The cluster “ecstasy” includes such concepts as “elation”, “rapture”, “ravishment”, “transport”, etc. Language units, representing concepts of this cluster, express enthusiastic, emotional state, a feeling of elation, excitement. Associative links of the concept “joy” with concepts of this cluster are identified in the examples of fiction that describe the highest level of emotional state of joy which people are unable to control in some situations characterized by the manifestation of passionate feelings. For example, in the case of solving a problem. Delight, lickety-split joy is expressed by means of units such as: to burst with joy, one’s joy overleaped all bounds, one cannot contain oneself for joy, to be beside oneself with joy,|
We have compared the word joy in two in two dictionaries:
Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary & Thesaurus
Pronunciation in British
They were filled with joy when their first child was born.
She wept for joy when she was told that her husband was still alive.
a person or thing that causes happiness:
Listening to music is one of his greatest joys.
the joys of parenthood
[ + to infinitive ] Her singing is a joy to listen to.
a feeling of great happiness
There were tears of joy in her eyes.
something that makes you feel very happy or pleased:
Discover the joys of skiing.
He cried for joy when he heard that his son had been found alive and well.
His poems reveal the duality of his nature, the joy and hope, the fear and despair.
Nearly every new parent feels an amalgam of joy and terror.
He was flooded with joy when his first child was born.
do something with/for joy:
Penny could have shouted with joy.
joy at (doing) something:
He could hardly contain his joy at seeing her again.
to someone’s joy:
To my joy, the meeting was cancelled.
In both dictionaries the pronunciation of the word joy is represented. In “Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary & Thesaurus” it includes American and British variant of pronunciation. Then the definitions of the word joy are given. The first main meaning is similar in both dictionaries. The second meaning is varied. The examples are used in both dictionaries too. However, in “Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary & Thesaurus” the word joy is used in sentences, in “Macmillan Dictionary” it is given in sentences and phrases. In our opinion the word joy is better provided in “Macmillan Dictionary”, because it contains all levels of understanding the word: pronunciation, meaning, phraseology and examples in sentences.
- Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary & Thesaurus [Electronic resource]. – URL: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/joy
- Macmillan Dictionary [Electronic resource]. – URL: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/joy
- Online Etymology Dictionary [Electronic resource]. – URL: www.etymonline.com
- The Free Dictionary [Electronic resource]. – URL: www.thefreedictionary.com/joy
- Thesaurus [Electronic resource]. – URL: http://www.thesaurus.com/browse/joy